Research Bibliography

A partial listing of the extensive body of research that helps make the PATHS® program the gold standard SEL curriculum

Averdijk, M., Zirk-Sadowski, J., Ribeaud, D., & Eisner, M. (2016). Long-term effects of two childhood psychosocial interventions on adolescent delinquency, substance use, and antisocial behavior: A cluster randomized controlled trial. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 12, 21-47.

Bierman, K., Domitrovich, C., Nix, R., Gest, S., Welsh, J., Greenberg, M., Gill, S. (2008). Promoting academic and social-emotional school readiness: The Head Start REDI program. Child Development, 79(6), 1802-1817.

Bierman, K. L., Nix, R. L., Greenberg, M. T., Blair, C., & Domitrovich, C. E. (2008). Executive functions and school readiness intervention: Impact, moderation, and mediation in the Head Start REDI program. Development and Psychology 20(3), 821-843.

Bierman, K. L., Nix, R. L., Heinrichs, B. S., Domitrovich, C. E., Gest, S. D., Welsh, J. A., & Gill, S. (2014). Effects of Head Start REDI on children’s outcomes 1 year later in different kindergarten contexts. Child Development, 85(1), 140-159.

Burcu, T. (2012). Social Competence and Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies - PATHS® Preschool Curriculum* Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice - 12(4) • Autumn • 2691-2698. Educational Consultancy and Research Center.

Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (1999). Initial impact of the Fast Track prevention trial for conduct problems: II. Classroom effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 648–657

Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2010). The effects of a multiyear universal social-emotional learning program: The role of student and school characteristics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(2), 156–168. doi: 10.1037/a0018607

Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2011). The Effects of the Fast Track Preventive Intervention on the Development of Conduct Disorder Across Childhood. Child Development, 82(1), 331–345.

Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2015). Impact of early intervention on psychopathology, crime, and well-being at age 25. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 59-70.

Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2017). The Fast Track Project: Effects on violence/aggression and related outcomes. In P. Sturmey (Ed.), The Wiley handbook of violence and aggression (Vol. 2. Assessment, prevention and treatment of individuals), 1-13. New York: Wiley.

Crean, H. F., & Johnson, D. B. (2013). Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies (PATHS®) and elementary school aged children's aggression: Results from a cluster randomized trial. American Journal of Community Psychology, 52, 56-72.

Curtis, C., & Norgate, R. (2007). An evaluation of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies curriculum at key stage 1. Educational Psychology in Practice, 23, 33-44.

Dodge, K.A., Bierman, K.L., Coie, J.D. Greenberg, M.T., Lochman, J.E., McMahon, R.J., & Pinderhughes, E.E. (2015). Impact of Early Intervention on Psychopathology, Crime, and Well-Being at Age 25. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172, pp. 59-70.

Domitrovich, C. E., Cortes, R. C., & Greenberg, M. T. (2006). Improving young children's social and emotional competence: A randomized trial of the Preschool PATHS® curriculum. Journal of Primary Prevention.

Fishbein, D., Domitrovich, C., Williams, J., Gituki, S., Guthrie, C., Shapiro, D., & Greenberg, M. T.

(2016). Short-term intervention effects of the PATHS® Curriculum in young low-income children:

Capitalizing on plasticity. Journal of Primary Prevention, 37, 493–511 DOI 10.1007/s10935-


Gibson, J.E., Werner, S.S., & Sweeney, A. (2015). Evaluating an Abbreviated Version of the PATHS® Curriculum Implemented by School Mental Health Clinicians. Psychology in the Schools, Vol. 52(6), 549 – 561 DOI: 10.1002/pits.21844 (view online at

Greenberg, M.T., & Kusché, C.A.  (1993). Promoting social and emotional development in deaf children:  The PATHS® Project. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Greenberg, M. T., & Kusché, C. A. (1998). Preventive intervention for school-age deaf children: The PATHS® curriculum. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 3 (1998): 49-63.

Greenberg, M. T., Kusché, C. A., Cook, E. T., & Quamma, J. P.  (1995). Promoting emotional competence in school-aged children: The effects of the PATHS® curriculum. Development and Psychopathology 7 (1995): 117-36.

Greenberg, M. T., Kusché, C. A., Riggs, N. (2004). The PATHS® Curriculum: Theory and research on neurocognitive development and school success. In J. Zins, R. Weissberg, M. Wang & H. Walberg (Eds.), Building Academic Success on Social and Emotional Learning (pp.170-188). NY: Teachers College Press.

Hindley, P., & Reed, R. (1999). Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS®) mental health promotion with deaf children in school. In S. Decker, S. Kirby, A. Greenwood, & D. Moores (Eds.), Taking children seriously (pp. 134–158). London: Cassell

Kam, C., Greenberg, M. T., & Kusché, C. A. (2004). Sustained effects of the PATHS® curriculum on the social and psychological adjustment of children in special education. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 12, 66-78.

Kam, C. M., Greenberg, M. T., & Walls, C. T. (2003). Examining the role of implementation quality in school-based prevention using the PATHS® curriculum. Prevention Science, 4, 55-63.

Kusché, C. A. (1984). The understanding of emotion concepts by deaf children: An assessment of an affective curriculum. University Microfilms International, DAO 56952.

Louwe, van Overveld, Merk, Orobio de Castro, & Koops (2007). De invloed van het Programma Alternatieve Denkstrategieen op proactieve and reactieve aggresie bij yongens en het primair onderwijs:eff ecten naar een jaar [The effect of PATHS® on pro-active and re-active aggression in boys in primary education: results after one year]. Pedagogische Studien, 84, 277–292.

Malti, T., Ribeaud, D., and Eisner, M. P. (2011).  The Effectiveness of Two Universal Preventive Interventions in Reducing Children’s Externalizing Behavior: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Child Clinical and Adolescent Psychology.

Malti, T., Ribeaud, D., & Eisner, M. (2012). Effectiveness of a universal school-based social competence program: The role of child characteristics and economic factors. International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 6, 249-259.

Mihic, J., Novak, M., Basic, J. & Nix, R. L. (2016). Promoting Social and Emotional Competencies among Young Children in Croatia with Preschool PATHS®. The International Journal of Emotional Education. 8 (2), pp 45-59.

Morris, P., Mattera, S. K., Castells, N., Bangser, M., Bierman, K., Raver, C. (2014). Impact Findings from the Head Start CARES Demonstration: National Evaluation of Three Approaches to Improving Preschoolers’ Social and Emotional Competence. OPRE Report 2014-44. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Nix, R. L., Bierman, K. L., Domitrovich, C. E., & Gill, S. (2013). Promoting children’s social-emotional skills in preschool can enhance academic and behavioral functioning in kindergarten: Findings from Head Start REDI. Early Education and Development, 24(7), 1000-1019.

Nix, R. L., Bierman, K. L., Heinrichs, B. S., Gest, S. D., Welsh, J. A., & Domitrovich, C. E. (2016). The randomized-controlled trial of Head Start REDI: Sustained effects on developmental trajectories of social-emotional functioning. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 84(4), 310-322.

Pasalich, D.S., Witkiewitz, K., McMahon, R.J., Pinderhughes, E.E., & The Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group (2015). Indirect effects of the Fast Track intervention on conduct disorder symptoms and callous-unemotional traits: distinct pathways involving discipline and warmth. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. PMID: 26242993.

Rahbari, N., Jacques, S., & Hughes, J. (2014). The effect of the PATHS® curriculum on school-aged children’s academic performance across development. Poster to be presented at Development 2014: A Canadian Conference on Developmental Psychology, Ottawa, Canada.

Riggs, N. R., & Greenberg, M. T. (2009). Neurocognition as a moderator and mediatory in adolescent substance misuse prevention. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 35, 209–213. doi: 10.1080/00952990903005940

Riggs, N. R., Greenberg, M. T., Kusché, C. A., & Pentz, M. A. (2006). The mediational role of neurocognition in the behavioral outcomes of a social-emotional prevention program in elementary school students: effects of the PATHS® curriculum. Prevention Science, 7, 91-102.

Schonfeld, D. J., Adams, R. E., Fredstrom, B. K., Weissberg, R. P., Gilman, R., Voyce, C., T... Speese-Linehan, D. (2014). Cluster-randomized trial demonstrating impact on academic achievement of elementary social-emotional learning. School Psychology Quarterly, advance online publication.

Seifert, R., Gouley, K., Miller, A.L., & Zabriski, A. (2004). Implementation of the PATHS® curriculum in an urban elementary school. Early Education & Development, 15(4), 471-486.

Sims, A. (2013 – 2014). Impact of PATHS® on Children in Norfolk.  Healthy Schools Norfolk, Norfolk County Council.

Sorensen, L.C., Dodge K.A., & The Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group (2015). How does the Fast Track intervention prevent adverse outcomes in young adulthood? Child Development, 87(2), 429-445 PMID: 26670938